Is it possible that a C++ program gives different results on different x86 hardware?
Is it possible that a C++ program gives different results on different - So, yes, programs can behave differently on different hardware (it is, afterall, how of the same processor on the same process can produce different results.
C Is Not a Low-level Language - Various attributes cause people to regard a language as low-level. . In summary, it is possible to make C code run quickly but only by the illusion that C maps easily to the underlying hardware and gives fast code. Compilers are free to determine that two pointers to different malloc results or stack
Common Visual C++ ARM Migration Issues - different results on the ARM architecture than it does on x86 or x64 architectures. Other migration issues can be attributed to hardware differences of the x86 and x64 architecture gives volatile -qualified variables some C++ language elements can produce different results on different platforms.
Undefined behavior in C and C++ programs - When a C or C++ program triggers undefined behavior, anything is allowed to systems / hardware platforms – and then a new bug becomes visible, and you standards, the difference in the treatment of UB by different compiler cause of a bug and drill down to where the most likely problem spots were.
x86-64 - of the assembly language programmer's view of the hardware [2, 4], as well are implemented using conditional move instructions when possible, yielding Figure 1 shows the sizes of different C data types for x86-64. .. As mentioned earlier, instructions that generate 32-bit register results, such as addl,.
Is a universal assembly language for all computers possible - Different architectures have different instruction sets: the set of allowed If you wrote an assembly program for an x86 processor, it'd have lots of . Languages like C would be another step away from the hardware (if an arguably . their operands from memory and/or save their results to memory; ARM is a
Atomic vs. Non-Atomic Operations - When you compile this function for 32-bit x86 using GCC, If sharedValue is accessed concurrently by different threads, several things can Let's look at atomicity at the C/C++ language level. In C and C++, every operation is presumed non-atomic unless otherwise specified by the compiler or hardware
Why the C Programming Language Still Runs the World - While many high-level languages have surpassed C in usage for certain In today's article, Toptal developer Daniel Angel Muñoz Trejo shows us View all results The alarm clock that wakes you up is likely programmed in C. Then you use developers to be more productive than with C for different kinds of projects.
A Comparison of Software and Hardware Techniques for x86 - vastly different among native, software VMM and hardware VMM ware interface ; C.4 [Performance of systems]: Performance at- ing system to permit virtualization, has produced promising results, . nisms are possible. At the .. The left half of Figure 1 shows a control flow graph with an .. The program is perhaps most.
long double - In C and related programming languages, long double refers to a floating-point data type that is often more precise than double-precision though the language standard only requires it to be at least as precise as double . As with C's other floating-point types, it may not necessarily map to an IEEE With the GNU C Compiler, long double is 80-bit extended precision on x86
c is not a low level language
C Is Not a Low-level Language - C Is Not a Low-level Language. Your computer is not a fast PDP-11. David Chisnall. In the wake of the recent Meltdown and Spectre
C Is Not a Low-level Language - C Is Not a Low-level Language, Published by ACM 2018 Article. Popular; Editor picked. Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. · Citation Count: 0
C Is Not a Low-Level Language - This article makes some valid points but is overall rather misleading I think. Almost all of the reasons given why C is "not a low-level language"
"C Is Not a Low-level Language" - David Chisnall, "C Is Not a Low-level Language. Your computer is not a fast PDP- 11.", ACM Queue, Volume 16, issue 2. "For a language to be
C Is Not a Low-level Language - ACM Queue : programming - Argue all you want about what defines a high level or a low level language But most people look at this relatively. If c is a high level language, what the hell
Blog - C Is Not a Low-level Language - In the wake of the recent Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities, it's worth spending some time looking at root causes. Both of these
How come some people say that C is not a low level language - By some C is considered a low level language — really, C is mostly a small layer of sanity on top of assembly. If you choose to use it in that
Was the C programming language considered a low level language - For its niche (a minimalist low-level language for writing Unix with a single-pass C is not a "very high level" language, nor a "big" one.
Is C programming language low level or high level? - So, in practice, you're likely to hear C being deemed "low level" unless you're talking to someone who fiddles bits in registers with a soldering
Low-level programming language - A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no . directives to adjust the way a compiler uses the target processor architecture. For example low level language is known as c and 'O' level language.
floating point error example
Floating point error mitigation - For example rounding to the nearest floating-point number corresponds to an error of less than or equal to .5 ulp. However, when analyzing the rounding error
What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point - Floating-point error arises because real numbers cannot, in general, be accurately represented in a fixed space. By definition, floating-point error cannot be eliminated, and, at best, can only be managed. Further, there are two types of floating point error, cancellation and rounding.
Floating point inaccuracy examples - But you can “amplify” the representation error by repeatedly adding the Since many floating-point numbers are merely approximations of the
The Floating-Point Guide - What Every Programmer Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic. or. Why don't So you've written some absurdly simple code, say for example: 0.1 + 0.2.
Why are floating point calculations so inaccurate? - It's a problem caused by the internal representation of floating point numbers, which uses a fixed number of binary digits to represent a decimal number. Some decimal numbers can't be represented exactly in binary, resulting in small roundoff errors. In base 2, 1/2 = 0.1, 1/4 = 0.01, 1/8 = 0.001, etc. .
14. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations - Floating-point numbers are represented in computer hardware as base 2 For example, if you try to round the value 2.675 to two decimal places, you The errors in Python float operations are inherited from the floating-point
15. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations - For example, the numbers 0.1 and 0.10000000000000001 and The errors in Python float operations are inherited from the floating-point hardware, and on
What are floating point errors? [Answered] - A very well-known problem is floating point errors. of binary floating point rounding errors, examples from our well-known decimal system can
Floating point error - I ran into trouble trying to understand floating point error. p is the number of digits in the significand, β is the base (10 in our example), and e is the exponent.
Integer Overflow/Underflow and Floating Point Imprecision. - Integer Overflow/Underflow and Floating Point Imprecision. For example, an 8- bit computer is capable of storing unsigned integers ranging
low level language examples
What are some of the most common examples of low-level languages - A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no . directives to adjust the way a compiler uses the target processor architecture. For example low level language is known as c and 'O' level language.
Low-level programming language - Low level languages are those that take many times more instructions than do C, Java, Fortran, etc. The best examples are assembly languages, such as IBM 360 assembler, PDP-10 assembler, Intel x86 assembler, etc. Name any computer and it will have a low-level assembler language unique to that computer.
low-level language - Trouble Encountered http://c2.com/wiki/remodel/pages/LowLevelLanguage can't fetch document. See github. Annotate Highlight.
High and Low Level Languages - They are closer to the native language of a computer (binary), making them harder for programmers to understand. Examples of low level language: Assembly
Images for low level language examples - A high-Level programming language enables a programmer to write In contrast , assembly languages are considered low-level because they are very close to
What is High-Level Programming Language? Webopedia Definition - Computer dictionary definition of what low-level language means, including Two good examples of low-level languages are assembly and
What is a Low-Level Language? - A low-level language is a programming language that deals with a Machine language and assembly language are popular examples of low-level languages.
What is a Low-Level Language? - The definition of Low-Level Language defined and explained in simple language .
Low-Level Language Definition - According to Wikipedia, the low level languages are machine code and assembly . . For example, is Lisp a high-level or a low-level language?
floating point rounding error
Rounding Errors - Rounding Errors. Because floating-point numbers have a limited number of digits, they cannot represent all real numbers accurately: when there are more digits than the format allows, the leftover ones are omitted - the number is rounded.
numeric precision - Any form of representation will have some rounding error for some number. Try to express 1/3 in IEEE floating point, or in decimal. Neither can
What is a simple example of floating point/rounding error? - If computer could represent 32-bit floats without rounding error then for every k we should get zero. But instead error increases with bigger values of k because of floating point error accumulation. Generally, floating point error refers to when a number that cannot be stored in the IEEE floating point representation.
Round-off error - There are two common rounding rules, we use the floating-point number whose last
What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point - It begins with background on floating-point representation and rounding error, continues with a discussion of the IEEE floating-point standard, and concludes
14. Floating Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations - Floating-point numbers are represented in computer hardware as base 2 . and that every float operation can suffer a new rounding error.
Floating Point Representation and Rounding Error - Rounding (roundoff) error is a phenomenon of digital computing resulting from Certain floating-point numbers may also be represented exactly, depending on
Rounding Error - It's a problem caused by the internal representation of floating point numbers, which epsilon = 0.0000000000001 # Tiny allowed error expected_result = 0.4 if
Why are floating point calculations so inaccurate? - In the worst case, we could have some real number 3.145×101 that will have rounding error 0.005. If we always choose the floating point number nearest to our
Floating point error - Floating Point Representation and Rounding Error.