Runtime Permissions in API-23 +

From sdk 23 Android requires runtime permissions for permissions on devices running Android 6.0 and higher, within what is classed as the Dangerous Permission Groups. Dangerous permission groups are one's that are considered to compromise the user's privacy and/or security.

The following is a list of Dangerous Permission Groups:

Dangerous Permission Groups

Permission Group
CALENDAR
CAMERA
CONTACTS
LOCATION
MICROPHONE
PHONE
SENSORS
SMS
STORAGE

Any permissions from these groups requires management of runtime permissions for devices on Android 6.0 and higher with a target sdk of 23 or higher.

Normal Permissions

The following is a list of normal permissions. These are not regarded as dangerous to the user's privacy or security and so do not require runtime permissions for sdk 23 and higher.

ACCESS_LOCATION_EXTRA_COMMANDS
ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE
ACCESS_NOTIFICATION_POLICY
ACCESS_WIFI_STATE
BLUETOOTH
BLUETOOTH_ADMIN
BROADCAST_STICKY
CHANGE_NETWORK_STATE
CHANGE_WIFI_MULTICAST_STATE
CHANGE_WIFI_STATE
DISABLE_KEYGUARD
EXPAND_STATUS_BAR
GET_PACKAGE_SIZE
INSTALL_SHORTCUT
INTERNET
KILL_BACKGROUND_PROCESSES
MODIFY_AUDIO_SETTINGS
NFC
READ_SYNC_SETTINGS
READ_SYNC_STATS
RECEIVE_BOOT_COMPLETED
REORDER_TASKS
REQUEST_IGNORE_BATTERY_OPTIMIZATIONS
REQUEST_INSTALL_PACKAGES
SET_ALARM
SET_TIME_ZONE
SET_WALLPAPER
SET_WALLPAPER_HINTS
TRANSMIT_IR
UNINSTALL_SHORTCUT
USE_FINGERPRINT
VIBRATE
WAKE_LOCK
WRITE_SYNC_SETTINGS

Android Marshmallow introduced Runtime Permission model. Permissions are categorized into two categories i.e. Normal and Dangerous Permissions. where dangerous permissions are now granted by the user at run time.

Android 6.0 multiple permissions

This example shows how to check permissions at runtime in Android 6 and later.

public static final int MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS = 10; // code you want.

String[] permissions = new String[] {
    Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE,
    Manifest.permission.CAMERA,
    Manifest.permission.ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION,
    Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION
};

@Override
void onStart() {
    if (checkPermissions()){
        // permissions granted.    
    } else {
        // show dialog informing them that we lack certain permissions
    }
}

private boolean checkPermissions() {
    int result;
    List<String> listPermissionsNeeded = new ArrayList<>();
    for (String p:permissions) {
        result = ContextCompat.checkSelfPermission(getActivity(),p);
        if (result != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
            listPermissionsNeeded.add(p);
        }
    }
    if (!listPermissionsNeeded.isEmpty()) {
        ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, listPermissionsNeeded.toArray(new String[listPermissionsNeeded.size()]), MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS);
        return false;
    }
    return true;
}

@Override
public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, String permissions[], int[] grantResults) {
    switch (requestCode) {
        case MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS:{
            if(grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED){
                // permissions granted.
            } else {
                // no permissions granted.
            }
            return;
        }
    }
}

Enforcing Permissions in Broadcasts, URI

You can do a permissions check when sending an Intent to a registered broadcast receiver. The permissions you send are cross-checked with the ones registered under the tag. They restrict who can send broadcasts to the associated receiver.

To send a broadcast request with permissions, specify the permission as a string in the Context.sendBroadcast(Intent intent, String permission) call, but keep in mind that the receiver's app MUST have that permission in order to receive your broadcast. The reciever should be installed first before the sender.

The method signature is:

 void sendBroadcast (Intent intent, String receiverPermission)
 //for example to send a broadcast to Bcastreceiver receiver
 Intent broadcast = new Intent(this, Bcastreceiver.class);
 sendBroadcast(broadcast, "org.quadcore.mypermission");

and you can specify in your manifest that the broadcast sender is required to include the requested permission sent through the sendBroadcast:

 <!--  Your special permission -->
 <permission android:name="org.quadcore.mypermission" 
    android:label="my_permission" 
    android:protectionLevel="dangerous"></permission>

Also declare the permission in the manifest of the application that is supposed to receive this broadcast:

 <!--  I use the permission ! -->
 <uses-permission android:name="org.quadcore.mypermission"/>
 <!-- along with the receiver -->
 <receiver android:name="Bcastreceiver" android:exported="true" />

Note: Both a receiver and a broadcaster can require a permission, and when this happens, both permission checks must pass for the Intent to be delivered to the associated target. The App that defines the permission should be installed first.

Find the full documentation here on Permissions.

Multiple Runtime Permissions From Same Permission Groups

In the manifest we have fours dangerous runtime permissions from two groups.

<!-- Required to read and write to shredPref file. -->
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"/>

<!-- Required to get location of device. -->
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION"/>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION"/>

In the activity where the permissions are required. Note it is important to check for permissions in any activity that requires permissions, as the permissions can be revoked while the app is in the background and the app will then crash.

final private int REQUEST_CODE_ASK_MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS = 124;


@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.act_layout);
    
    // A simple check of whether runtime permissions need to be managed 
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {
        checkMultiplePermissions();
    }

We only need to ask for permission for one of these from each group and all other permissions from this group are granted unless the permission is revoked by the user.

private void checkMultiplePermissions() {

    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {
        List<String> permissionsNeeded = new ArrayList<String>();
        List<String> permissionsList = new ArrayList<String>();
        
        if (!addPermission(permissionsList, android.Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION)) {
            permissionsNeeded.add("GPS");
        }

        if (!addPermission(permissionsList, android.Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE)) {
            permissionsNeeded.add("Read Storage");
        }
        
        if (permissionsList.size() > 0) {
            requestPermissions(permissionsList.toArray(new String[permissionsList.size()]),
                    REQUEST_CODE_ASK_MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS);
            return;
        }
    }
}



private boolean addPermission(List<String> permissionsList, String permission) {
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23)

        if (checkSelfPermission(permission) != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
            permissionsList.add(permission);

            // Check for Rationale Option
            if (!shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(permission))
                return false;
        }
    return true;
}

This deals with the result of the user allowing or not allowing permissions. In this example, if the permissions are not allowed, the app is killed.

@Override
public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, String[] permissions, int[] grantResults) {
    switch (requestCode) {
        case REQUEST_CODE_ASK_MULTIPLE_PERMISSIONS: {
        
            Map<String, Integer> perms = new HashMap<String, Integer>();
            // Initial
            perms.put(android.Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION, PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED);
            perms.put(android.Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE, PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED);
            
            // Fill with results
            for (int i = 0; i < permissions.length; i++)
                perms.put(permissions[i], grantResults[i]);
            if (perms.get(android.Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION) == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED
                    && perms.get(android.Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE) == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                // All Permissions Granted
                return;
            } else {
                // Permission Denied
                if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {
                    Toast.makeText(
                            getApplicationContext(),
                            "My App cannot run without Location and Storage " +
                                    "Permissions.\nRelaunch My App or allow permissions" +
                                    " in Applications Settings",
                            Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
                    finish();
                }
            }
        }
        break;
        default:
            super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
    }
}

More Information https://inthecheesefactory.com/blog/things-you-need-to-know-about-android-m-permission-developer-edition/en

Using PermissionUtil

PermissionUtil is a simple and convenient way of asking for permissions in context. You can easily provide what should happen in case of all requested permissions granted (onAllGranted()), any request was denied (onAnyDenied()) or in case that a rational is needed (onRational()).

Anywhere in your AppCompatActivity or Fragment that you want to ask for user's permisssion

mRequestObject = PermissionUtil.with(this).request(Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE).onAllGranted(
                new Func() {
                    @Override protected void call() {
                        //Happy Path
                    }
                }).onAnyDenied(
                new Func() {
                    @Override protected void call() {
                        //Sad Path
                    }
                }).ask(REQUEST_CODE_STORAGE);

And add this to onRequestPermissionsResult

if(mRequestObject!=null){
    mRequestObject.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
}

Add the requested permission to your AndroidManifest.xml as well

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />

Include all permission-related code to an abstract base class and extend the activity of this base class to achieve cleaner/reusable code

public abstract class BaseActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    private Map<Integer, PermissionCallback> permissionCallbackMap = new HashMap<>();

    @Override
    protected void onStart() {
        super.onStart();
        ...
    }

    @Override
    public void setContentView(int layoutResId) {
        super.setContentView(layoutResId);
        bindViews();
    }

    ...

    @Override
    public void onRequestPermissionsResult(
            int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions, @NonNull int[] grantResults) {
        super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
        PermissionCallback callback = permissionCallbackMap.get(requestCode);

        if (callback == null) return;

        // Check whether the permission request was rejected.
        if (grantResults.length < 0 && permissions.length > 0) {
            callback.onPermissionDenied(permissions);
            return;
        }

        List<String> grantedPermissions = new ArrayList<>();
        List<String> blockedPermissions = new ArrayList<>();
        List<String> deniedPermissions = new ArrayList<>();
        int index = 0;

        for (String permission : permissions) {
            List<String> permissionList = grantResults[index] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED
                    ? grantedPermissions
                    : ! ActivityCompat.shouldShowRequestPermissionRationale(this, permission)
                        ? blockedPermissions
                        : deniedPermissions;
            permissionList.add(permission);
            index ++;
        }

        if (grantedPermissions.size() > 0) {
            callback.onPermissionGranted(
                    grantedPermissions.toArray(new String[grantedPermissions.size()]));
        }

        if (deniedPermissions.size() > 0) {
            callback.onPermissionDenied(
                    deniedPermissions.toArray(new String[deniedPermissions.size()]));
        }

        if (blockedPermissions.size() > 0) {
            callback.onPermissionBlocked(
                    blockedPermissions.toArray(new String[blockedPermissions.size()]));
        }

        permissionCallbackMap.remove(requestCode);
    }

    /**
     * Check whether a permission is granted or not.
     *
     * @param permission
     * @return
     */
    public boolean hasPermission(String permission) {
        return ContextCompat.checkSelfPermission(this, permission) == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED;
    }

    /**
     * Request permissions and get the result on callback.
     *
     * @param permissions
     * @param callback
     */
    public void requestPermission(String [] permissions, @NonNull PermissionCallback callback) {
        int requestCode = permissionCallbackMap.size() + 1;
        permissionCallbackMap.put(requestCode, callback);
        ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, permissions, requestCode);
    }

    /**
     * Request permission and get the result on callback.
     *
     * @param permission
     * @param callback
     */
    public void requestPermission(String permission, @NonNull PermissionCallback callback) {
        int requestCode = permissionCallbackMap.size() + 1;
        permissionCallbackMap.put(requestCode, callback);
        ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, new String[] { permission }, requestCode);
    }
}

Example usage in the activity

The activity should extend the abstract base class defined above as follows:

private void requestLocationAfterPermissionCheck() {
    if (hasPermission(Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION)) {
        requestLocation();
        return;
    }

    // Call the base class method.
    requestPermission(Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION, new PermissionCallback() {
        @Override
        public void onPermissionGranted(String[] grantedPermissions) {
            requestLocation();
        }

        @Override
        public void onPermissionDenied(String[] deniedPermissions) {
            // Do something.
        }

        @Override
        public void onPermissionBlocked(String[] blockedPermissions) {
            // Do something.
        }
    });
}