IndexedDB

Transactions

Transactions need to be used immediately after they're created. If they aren't used in the current event loop (basically before we wait for anything like a web request) they'll go into an inactive state where you can't use them.

Databases can only have one transaction that writes to a particular object store at a time. So you can have as many as you want that read from our things store, but only one can make changes at any given time.

Testing for IndexedDB availability

You can test for IndexedDB support in the current environment by checking for the presence of the window.indexedDB property:

if (window.indexedDB) {
    // IndexedDB is available
}

Opening a database

Opening a database is an asynchronous operation. We need to send a request to open our database and then listen for events so we know when it's ready.

We'll open a DemoDB database. If it doesn't exist yet, it will get created when we send the request.

The 2 below says that we're asking for version 2 of our database. Only one version exists at any time, but we can use the version number to upgrade old data, as you'll see.

var db = null, // We'll use this once we have our database
    request = window.indexedDB.open("DemoDB", 2);

// Listen for success. This will be called after onupgradeneeded runs, if it does at all
request.onsuccess = function() {
    db = request.result; // We have a database!

    doThingsWithDB(db);
};

// If our database didn't exist before, or it was an older version than what we requested,
// the `onupgradeneeded` event will be fired.
// 
// We can use this to setup a new database and upgrade an old one with new data stores
request.onupgradeneeded = function(event) {
    db = request.result;

    // If the oldVersion is less than 1, then the database didn't exist. Let's set it up
    if (event.oldVersion < 1) {
        // We'll create a new "things" store with `autoIncrement`ing keys
        var store = db.createObjectStore("things", { autoIncrement: true });
    }

    // In version 2 of our database, we added a new index by the name of each thing
    if (event.oldVersion < 2) {
        // Let's load the things store and create an index
        var store = request.transaction.objectStore("things");

        store.createIndex("by_name", "name");
    }
};

// Handle any errors
request.onerror = function() {
    console.error("Something went wrong when we tried to request the database!");
};

Adding objects

Anything that needs to happen with data in an IndexedDB database happens in a transaction. There are a few things to note about transactions that are mentioned in the Remarks section at the bottom of this page.

We'll use the database we set up in Opening a database.

// Create a new readwrite (since we want to change things) transaction for the things store
var transaction = db.transaction(["things"], "readwrite");

// Transactions use events, just like database open requests. Let's listen for success
transaction.oncomplete = function() {
    console.log("All done!");
};

// And make sure we handle errors
transaction.onerror = function() {
    console.log("Something went wrong with our transaction: ", transaction.error);
};

// Now that our event handlers are set up, let's get our things store and add some objects!
var store = transaction.objectStore("things");


// Transactions can do a few things at a time. Let's start with a simple insertion
var request = store.add({
    // "things" uses auto-incrementing keys, so we don't need one, but we can set it anyway
    key: "coffee_cup",
    name: "Coffee Cup",
    contents: ["coffee", "cream"]
});

// Let's listen so we can see if everything went well
request.onsuccess = function(event) {
    // Done! Here, `request.result` will be the object's key, "coffee_cup"
};


// We can also add a bunch of things from an array. We'll use auto-generated keys
var thingsToAdd = [{ name: "Example object" }, { value: "I don't have a name" }];

// Let's use more compact code this time and ignore the results of our insertions
thingsToAdd.forEach(e => store.add(e));

Retrieving data

Anything that needs to happen with data in an IndexedDB database happens in a transaction. There are a few things to note about transactions that are mentioned in the Remarks section at the bottom of this page.

We'll use the database we set up in Opening a database.

// Create a new transaction, we'll use the default "readonly" mode and the things store
var transaction = db.transaction(["things"]);

// Transactions use events, just like database open requests. Let's listen for success
transaction.oncomplete = function() {
    console.log("All done!");
};

// And make sure we handle errors
transaction.onerror = function() {
    console.log("Something went wrong with our transaction: ", transaction.error);
};

// Now that everything is set up, let's get our things store and load some objects!
var store = transaction.objectStore("things");


// We'll load the coffee_cup object we added in Adding objects
var request = store.get("coffee_cup");

// Let's listen so we can see if everything went well
request.onsuccess = function(event) {
    // All done, let's log our object to the console
    console.log(request.result);
};


// That was pretty long for a basic retrieval. If we just want to get just
// the one object and don't care about errors, we can shorten things a lot
db.transaction("things").objectStore("things")
    .get("coffee_cup").onsuccess = e => console.log(e.target.result);