how to stop browser back button using javascript

I am doing online quiz app in php. I want to restrict user while going back in exam. I have tried following script but it stops my timer. What should I do please suggest me. I have included source code. The timer is stored in cdtimer.js

<script type="text/javascript">
        window.history.forward();
        function noBack()
        {
            window.history.forward();
        }
</script>
<body onLoad="noBack();" onpageshow="if (event.persisted) noBack();" onUnload="">

I have exam timer which takes duration of exam from mysql db and starts timer accordingly it stops when I put code for disabling back button. what will be the problem.

Answers


There are numerous reasons why disabling the back button will not really work. Your best bet is to warn the user:

window.onbeforeunload = function() { return "Your work will be lost."; };

This page does list a number of ways you could try to disable the back button, but none are guaranteed:

http://www.irt.org/script/311.htm


It is generally a bad idea overriding the default behavior of web browser. Client side script does not have the sufficient privilege to do this for security reason.

There are few similar questions asked as well,

You can-not actually disable browser back button. However you can do magic using your logic to prevent user from navigating back which will create an impression like it is disabled. Here is how, check out the following snippet.

(function (global) { 

    if(typeof (global) === "undefined") {
        throw new Error("window is undefined");
    }

    var _hash = "!";
    var noBackPlease = function () {
        global.location.href += "#";

        // making sure we have the fruit available for juice (^__^)
        global.setTimeout(function () {
            global.location.href += "!";
        }, 50);
    };

    global.onhashchange = function () {
        if (global.location.hash !== _hash) {
            global.location.hash = _hash;
        }
    };

    global.onload = function () {            
        noBackPlease();

        // disables backspace on page except on input fields and textarea..
        document.body.onkeydown = function (e) {
            var elm = e.target.nodeName.toLowerCase();
            if (e.which === 8 && (elm !== 'input' && elm  !== 'textarea')) {
                e.preventDefault();
            }
            // stopping event bubbling up the DOM tree..
            e.stopPropagation();
        };          
    }

})(window);

This is in pure JavaScript so it would work in most of the browsers. It would also disable backspace key but key will work normally inside input fields and textarea.

Recommended Setup:

Place this snippet in a separate script and include it on a page where you want this behavior. In current setup it will execute onload event of DOM which is the ideal entry point for this code.

Working DEMO!

Tested and verified in following browsers,

  • Chrome.
  • Firefox.
  • IE (8-11) and Edge.
  • Safari.

<script>
window.location.hash="no-back-button";
window.location.hash="Again-No-back-button";//again because google chrome don't insert first hash into history
window.onhashchange=function(){window.location.hash="no-back-button";}
</script> 

I came across this, needing a solution which worked correctly and "nicely" on a variety of browsers, including Mobile Safari (iOS9 at time of posting). None of the solutions were quite right. I offer the following (tested on IE11, FireFox, Chrome & Safari):

history.pushState(null, document.title, location.href);
window.addEventListener('popstate', function (event)
{
  history.pushState(null, document.title, location.href);
});

Note the following:

  • history.forward() (my old solution) does not work on Mobile Safari --- it seems to do nothing (i.e. the user can still go back). history.pushState() does work on all of them.
  • the 3rd argument to history.pushState() is a url. Solutions which pass a string like 'no-back-button' or 'pagename' seem to work OK, until you then try a Refresh/Reload on the page, at which point a "Page not found" error is generated when the browser tries to locate a page with that as its Url. (The browser is also likely to include that string in the address bar when on the page, which is ugly.) location.href should be used for the Url.
  • the 2nd argument to history.pushState() is a title. Looking around the web most places say it is "not used", and all the solutions here pass null for that. However, in Mobile Safari at least, that puts the page's Url into the history dropdown the user can access. But when it adds an entry for a page visit normally, it puts in its title, which is preferable. So passing document.title for that results in the same behaviour.

This code will disable the back button for modern browsers which support the HTML5 History API. Under normal circumstances, pushing the back button goes back one step, to the previous page. If you use history.pushState(), you start adding extra sub-steps to the current page. The way it works is, if you were to use history.pushState() three times, then start pushing the back button, the first three times it would navigate back in these sub-steps, and then the fourth time it would go back to the previous page.

If you combine this behaviour with an event listener on the popstate event, you can essentially set up an infinite loop of sub-states. So, you load the page, push a sub-state, then hit the back button, which pops a sub-state and also pushes another one, so if you push the back button again it will never run out of sub-states to push. If you feel that it's necessary to disable the back button, this will get you there.

history.pushState(null, null, 'no-back-button');
window.addEventListener('popstate', function(event) {
  history.pushState(null, null, 'no-back-button');
});

This is the way I could it accomplish it. Weirdly changing the window.location didn't worked out fine in chrome and safari. Happens that the location.hash doesn't create an entry in the history for chrome and safari. So you will have to use the pushstate. This is working for me in all browsers.

    history.pushState({ page: 1 }, "title 1", "#nbb");
    window.onhashchange = function (event) {
        window.location.hash = "nbb";

    };

<html>
<head>
    <title>Disable Back Button in Browser - Online Demo</title>
    <style type="text/css">
        body, input {
            font-family: Calibri, Arial;
        }
    </style>
    <script type="text/javascript">
        window.history.forward();
        function noBack() {
            window.history.forward();
        }
    </script>
</head>
<body onload="noBack();" onpageshow="if (event.persisted) noBack();" onunload="">
    <H2>Demo</H2>
    <p>This page contains the code to avoid Back button.</p>
    <p>Click here to Goto <a href="noback.html">NoBack Page</a></p>
</body>
</html>

This article on jordanhollinger.com is the best option I feel. Similar to Razor's answer but a bit clearer. Code below; full credits to Jordan Hollinger:

Page before:

<a href="/page-of-no-return.htm#no-back>You can't go back from the next page</a>

Page of no return's JavaScript:

// It works without the History API, but will clutter up the history
var history_api = typeof history.pushState !== 'undefined'

// The previous page asks that it not be returned to
if ( location.hash == '#no-back' ) {
  // Push "#no-back" onto the history, making it the most recent "page"
  if ( history_api ) history.pushState(null, '', '#stay')
  else location.hash = '#stay'

  // When the back button is pressed, it will harmlessly change the url
  // hash from "#stay" to "#no-back", which triggers this function
  window.onhashchange = function() {
    // User tried to go back; warn user, rinse and repeat
    if ( location.hash == '#no-back' ) {
      alert("You shall not pass!")
      if ( history_api ) history.pushState(null, '', '#stay')
      else location.hash = '#stay'
    }
  }
}

    history.pushState(null, null, location.href);
    window.onpopstate = function () {
        history.go(1);
    };


Try it with ease :

history.pushState(null, null, document.title);
window.addEventListener('popstate', function () {
    history.pushState(null, null, document.title);
});

history.pushState(null, null, document.URL);
window.addEventListener('popstate', function () {
    history.pushState(null, null, document.URL);
});

This javascript does not allow any user to go back (works in Chrome, FF, IE, Edge)


Very simple and clean function to break the back arrow without interfering with the page afterward.

Benefits:

  • Loads instantaneously and restores original hash, so the user isn't distracted by URL visibly changing.
  • The user can still exit by pressing back 10 times (that's a good thing) but not accidentally
  • No user interference like other solutions using onbeforeunload
  • It only runs once and doesn't interfere with further hash manipulations in case you use that to track state
  • Restores original hash, so almost invisible.
  • Uses setInterval so it doesn't break slow browsers and always works.
  • Pure Javascript, does not require HTML5 history, works everywhere.
  • Unobrusive, simple, and plays well with other code.
  • Does not use unbeforeunload which interrupts user with modal dialog.
  • It just works without fuss.

Note: some of the other solutions use onbeforeunload. Please do not use onbeforeunload for this purpose, which pops up a dialog whenever users try to close the window, hit backarrow, etc. Modals like onbeforeunload are usually only appropriate in rare circumstances, such as when they've actually made changes on screen and haven't saved them, not for this purpose.

How It Works

  1. Executes on page load
  2. Saves your original hash (if one is in the URL).
  3. Sequentially appends #/noop/{1..10} to the hash
  4. Restores the original hash

That's it. No further messing around, no background event monitoring, nothing else.

Use It In One Second

To deploy, just add this anywhere on your page or in your JS:

<script>
/* break back button */                                                                        
window.onload=function(){                                                                      
  var i=0; var previous_hash = window.location.hash;                                           
  var x = setInterval(function(){                                                              
    i++; window.location.hash = "/noop/" + i;                                                  
    if (i==10){clearInterval(x);                                                               
      window.location.hash = previous_hash;}                                                   
  },10);
}
</script>

This seems to have worked for us in disabling the back button on the browser, as well as the backspace button taking you back.

history.pushState(null, null, $(location).attr('href'));
    window.addEventListener('popstate', function () {
        history.pushState(null, null, $(location).attr('href'));
    });

   <script src="~/main.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript">
        window.history.forward();
        function noBack() { window.history.forward(); } </script>

<script language="JavaScript">
    javascript:window.history.forward(1);
</script>

Try this to prevent backspace button in IE which by default act as "Back":

<script language="JavaScript">
$(document).ready(function() {
$(document).unbind('keydown').bind('keydown', function (event) {
    var doPrevent = false;


    if (event.keyCode === 8 ) {
        var d = event.srcElement || event.target;
        if ((d.tagName.toUpperCase() === 'INPUT' && 
             (
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'TEXT' ||
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'PASSWORD' || 
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'FILE' || 
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'EMAIL' || 
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'SEARCH' || 
                 d.type.toUpperCase() === 'DATE' )
             ) || 
             d.tagName.toUpperCase() === 'TEXTAREA') {
            doPrevent = d.readOnly || d.disabled;
        }
        else {

            doPrevent = true;
        }
    }

    if (doPrevent) {
        event.preventDefault();
    }

    try {
        document.addEventListener('keydown', function (e) {
               if ((e.keyCode === 13)){
                  // alert('Enter keydown');
                   e.stopPropagation();
                   e.preventDefault();
               }



           }, true);
        } catch (err) {}
    });
});
</script>

I believe the perfect yet solution is actually pretty straightforward, which I used for many years now.

It's basically assigning the window's "onbeforeunload" event along with the ongoing document 'mouseenter' / 'mouseleave' events so the alert only triggers when clicks are outside the document scope (which then could be either the back or forward button of the browser)

$(document).on('mouseenter', function(e) { 
        window.onbeforeunload = null; 
    }
);

$(document).on('mouseleave', function(e) { 
        window.onbeforeunload = function() { return "You work will be lost."; };
    }
);

In a modern browser this seems to work:

// https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/API/History_API
let popHandler = () => {
  if (confirm('Go back?')) {
    window.history.back() 
  } else {
    window.history.forward()
    setTimeout(() => {
      window.addEventListener('popstate', popHandler, {once: true})
    }, 50) // delay needed since the above is an async operation for some reason
  }
}
window.addEventListener('popstate', popHandler, {once: true})
window.history.pushState(null,null,null)

For Restrict Browser back event

window.history.pushState(null, "", window.location.href);
window.onpopstate = function () {
    window.history.pushState(null, "", window.location.href);
};

You simply cannot and should not do this. However, but this might be helpful

<script type = "text/javascript" >
history.pushState(null, null, 'pagename');
window.addEventListener('popstate', function(event) {
history.pushState(null, null, 'pagename');
});
</script>

Works in my chrome and firefox


I create one HTML page ( index.html ). I also create a one ( mechanism.js ) inside a ( script ) folder / directory. Then, I lay all my content inside of ( index.html ) using form, table, span, and div tags as needed. Now, here's the trick that will make back / forward do nothing!

First, the fact that you have only one page! Second, the use of JavaScript with span / div tags to hide and display content on the same page when needed via regular links!

Inside ' index.html ' :

    <td width="89px" align="right" valign="top" style="letter-spacing:1px;">
     <small>
      <b>
       <a href="#" class="traff" onClick="DisplayInTrafficTable();">IN</a>&nbsp;
      </b>
     </small>
     [&nbsp;<span id="inCountSPN">0</span>&nbsp;]
    </td>

Inside ' mechanism.js ' :

    function DisplayInTrafficTable()
    {
     var itmsCNT = 0;
     var dsplyIn = "";
     for ( i=0; i<inTraffic.length; i++ )
     {
      dsplyIn += "<tr><td width='11'></td><td align='right'>" + (++itmsCNT) + "</td><td width='11'></td><td><b>" + inTraffic[i] + "</b></td><td width='11'></td><td>" + entryTimeArray[i] + "</td><td width='11'></td><td>" + entryDateArray[i] + "</td><td width='11'></td></tr>";
     }
     document.getElementById('inOutSPN').innerHTML = "" +
                                             "<table border='0' style='background:#fff;'><tr><th colspan='21' style='background:#feb;padding:11px;'><h3 style='margin-bottom:-1px;'>INCOMING TRAFFIC REPORT</h3>" + DateStamp() + "&nbsp;&nbsp;-&nbsp;&nbsp;<small><a href='#' style='letter-spacing:1px;' onclick='OpenPrintableIn();'>PRINT</a></small></th></tr><tr style='background:#eee;'><td></td><td><b>###</b></td><td></td><td><b>ID #</b></td><td></td><td width='79'><b>TYPE</b></td><td></td><td><b>FIRST</b></td><td></td><td><b>LAST</b></td><td></td><td><b>PLATE #</b></td><td></td><td><b>COMPANY</b></td><td></td><td><b>TIME</b></td><td></td><td><b>DATE</b></td><td></td><td><b>IN / OUT</b></td><td></td></tr>" + dsplyIn.toUpperCase() + "</table>" +
                                             "";
     return document.getElementById('inOutSPN').innerHTML;
    }

It looks hairy, but note the function names and calls, embedded HTML, and the span tag id calls. This was to show how you can inject different HTML into same span tag on same page! How can Back/Forward affect this design? It cannot, because you are hiding objects and replacing others all on the same page!

How to hide and display? Here goes: Inside functions in ' mechanism.js ' as needed, use:

    document.getElementById('textOverPic').style.display = "none"; //hide
    document.getElementById('textOverPic').style.display = "";     //display

Inside ' index.html ' call functions through links:

    <img src="images/someimage.jpg" alt="" />
    <span class="textOverPic" id="textOverPic"></span>

and

    <a href="#" style="color:#119;font-size:11px;text-decoration:none;letter-spacing:1px;" onclick="HiddenTextsManager(1);">Introduction</a>

I hope I did not give you a headache. Sorry if I did :-)


In my case this was a shopping order. So what I did was disable the button. When the user clicked back, the button was disabled still. When they clicked back one more time, and then clicked a page button to go forward. I knew their order was submitted and skipped to another page.

In the case when the page actually refreshed which would make the button (theoretically), available; I was then able to react in the page load that the order is already submitted and redirect then too.


//"use strict";
function stopBackSpace(e) {
    var ev = e || window.event;
    var obj = ev.target || ev.srcElement;
    var t = obj.type || obj.getAttribute('type');

    var vReadOnly = obj.getAttribute('readonly');
    var vEnabled = obj.getAttribute('enabled');
    // null
    vReadOnly = (vReadOnly == null) ? false : vReadOnly;
    vEnabled = (vEnabled == null) ? true : vEnabled;
    // when click Backspace,judge the type of obj.

    var flag1 = ((t == 'password' || t == 'text' || t == 'textarea') && ((vReadOnly == true || vReadOnly == 'readonly') || vEnabled != true)) ? true : false;

    var flag2 = (t != 'password' && t != 'text' && t != 'textarea') ? true : false;

    if (flag2) {
        e.keyCode = 0;
        e.cancelBubble = true;
        return false;
    }
    if (flag1) {
        e.keyCode = 0;
        e.cancelBubble = true;
        return false;
    }
}
if (typeof($) == 'function') {
    $(function() {
        $(document).keydown(function(e) {
            if (e.keyCode == 8) {
                return stopBackSpace(e);
            }
        });
    });
} else {
    document.onkeydown = stopBackSpace;
}

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