What is meant by App Store vs Ad Hoc regarding iOS app icons?
This is in reference to the app icon specifications found here: https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/qa/qa1686/_index.html
For the columns marked 'App Store' and 'Ad Hoc', are these references to the type of provisioning profile used to build the application?
If so, what are the consequences of including something like the file named 'iTunesArtwork' in an App Store build?
Yes they are referencing to the build type match the provisioning profile.
So an Ad-Hoc build would be better off have a the iTunesArtwork and iTunesArtwork @2x include in the build. Where as if you are building an AppStore build these icons should not be included.
A solution to do this is make a separate target for AdHoc and include the iTunesArtwork and iTunesArtwork @2x in this target only.