getting SAXParseException not well-formed (invalid token), unable to resolve issue

I need to parse a very large xml in scrapy. It is some what like,

<Result>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>306533011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">temperature-controllers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Temperature Controllers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Temperature Controllers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,306533011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Temperature Controllers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>TEMPERATURE_CONTROLLER</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>9931457011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">industrial-and-scientific-temperature-indicators</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Temperature Indicators</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Temperature Indicators</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,9931457011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Temperature Indicators</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>5006547011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">industrial-temperature-sensors</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Temperature Probes & Sensors</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Temperature Probes & Sensors</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,5006547011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Temperature Probes & Sensors</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>9931455011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">thermal-imagers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Thermal Imagers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Thermal Imagers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,9931455011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermal Imagers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>393280011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="0"/>
        <browseNodeName>Thermometers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Thermometers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,393280011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermometers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>true</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="4">
            <id>393282011</id>
            <id>393284011</id>
            <id>393283011</id>
            <id>9931459011</id>
        </childNodes>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>393282011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">industrial-and-scientific-dial-thermometers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Dial Thermometers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Dial Thermometers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,393280011,393282011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermometers,Dial Thermometers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>393284011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">science-lab-digital-thermometers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Digital Thermometers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Lab Digital Thermometers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,393280011,393284011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermometers,Digital Thermometers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>LAB_SUPPLY</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>393283011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">industrial-and-scientific-glass-thermometers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Glass Thermometers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Glass Thermometers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,393280011,393283011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermometers,Glass Thermometers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
    <Node>
        <browseNodeId>9931459011</browseNodeId>
        <browseNodeAttributes count="1">
            <attribute name="item_type_keyword">infrared-thermometers</attribute>
        </browseNodeAttributes>
        <browseNodeName>Infrared Thermometers</browseNodeName>
        <browseNodeStoreContextName>Infrared Thermometers</browseNodeStoreContextName>
        <browsePathById>16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,393280011,9931459011</browsePathById>
        <browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Thermometers,Infrared Thermometers</browsePathByName>
        <hasChildren>false</hasChildren>
        <childNodes count="0"/>
        <productTypeDefinitions>PRECISION_MEASURING</productTypeDefinitions>
        <refinementsInformation count="0"/>
    </Node>
</Result>

It's giving me xml.sax._exceptions.SAXParseException: nodes.xml:11:38: not well-formed (invalid token) error. As the size of xml file is very large, I can't opt for replacing each and every ampersand.

At this moment I've not implemented it using scrapy. Although a simple class for reference is below. How can this be trouble-shooted without replacing each and every ampersand.

import xml.sax


class ABContentHandler(xml.sax.ContentHandler):
    def __init__(self):
        xml.sax.ContentHandler.__init__(self)

    def startElement(self, name, attrs):
        print("startElement '" + name + "'")
        if name == "address":
            print("\tattribute type='" + attrs.getValue("type") + "'")

    def endElement(self, name):
        print("endElement '" + name + "'")

    def characters(self, content):
        print("characters '" + content + "'")

def main(sourceFileName):
    source = open(sourceFileName)
    xml.sax.parse(source, ABContentHandler())

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main("nodes.xml")

Output

startElement 'Result'
characters '
'
characters '    '
startElement 'Node'
characters '
'
characters '        '
startElement 'browseNodeId'
characters '306533011'
endElement 'browseNodeId'
characters '
'
characters '        '
startElement 'browseNodeAttributes'
characters '
'
characters '            '
startElement 'attribute'
characters 'temperature-controllers'
endElement 'attribute'
characters '
'
characters '        '
endElement 'browseNodeAttributes'
characters '
'
characters '        '
startElement 'browseNodeName'
characters 'Temperature Controllers'
endElement 'browseNodeName'
characters '
'
characters '        '
startElement 'browseNodeStoreContextName'
characters 'Temperature Controllers'
endElement 'browseNodeStoreContextName'
characters '
'
characters '        '
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/gtac/sax/parser.py", line 26, in <module>
    main("nodes.xml")
  File "/home/gtac/sax/parser.py", line 23, in main
    xml.sax.parse(source, ABContentHandler())
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xml/sax/__init__.py", line 33, in parse
    parser.parse(source)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xml/sax/expatreader.py", line 107, in parse
    xmlreader.IncrementalParser.parse(self, source)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xml/sax/xmlreader.py", line 123, in parse
    self.feed(buffer)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xml/sax/expatreader.py", line 214, in feed
    self._err_handler.fatalError(exc)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/xml/sax/handler.py", line 38, in fatalError
    raise exception
xml.sax._exceptions.SAXParseException: nodes.xml:11:38: not well-formed (invalid token)
startElement 'browsePathById'
characters '16310091,16310161,256409011,5006566011,306533011'
endElement 'browsePathById'
characters '
'
characters '        '
startElement 'browsePathByName'
characters 'Industrial '

Process finished with exit code 1

Answers


The error shows which line and character the problem is at. It is at the & in

<browsePathByName>Industrial & Scientific,Test, Measure & Inspect,Temperature & Humidity,Temperature Controllers</browsePathByName>

The problem that it is not valid XML to have an & on its own. & begins an entity

W3C Recommendation in section 2.4 Character Data and Markup says

The ampersand character (&) and the left angle bracket (<) must not appear in their literal form, except when used as markup delimiters, or within a comment, a processing instruction, or a CDATA section. If they are needed elsewhere, they must be escaped using either numeric character references or the strings "&amp;" and "&lt;" respectively. The right angle bracket (>) may be represented using the string "&gt;", and must, for compatibility, be escaped using either "&gt;" or a character reference when it appears in the string "]]>" in content, when that string is not marking the end of a CDATA section.

The correct fix is to tell the author of the XML that their output is invalid and they have to fix it.

Otherwise you have to parse the text first and replace all stand alone & by &amp;


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