kCVPixelFormatType_420YpCbCr8BiPlanarFullRange frame to UIImage conversion

I have an app that capture live video in kCVPixelFormatType_420YpCbCr8BiPlanarFullRange format to process Y channel. According to Apple's documentation:

kCVPixelFormatType_420YpCbCr8BiPlanarFullRange Bi-Planar Component Y'CbCr 8-bit 4:2:0, full-range (luma=[0,255] chroma=[1,255]). baseAddr points to a big-endian CVPlanarPixelBufferInfo_YCbCrBiPlanar struct.

I want to present some of these frames in a UIViewController, is there any API to make the conversion to kCVPixelFormatType_32BGRA format? Can you give some hint to tune this method provided by Apple?

// Create a UIImage from sample buffer data
- (UIImage *) imageFromSampleBuffer:(CMSampleBufferRef) sampleBuffer  {
    // Get a CMSampleBuffer's Core Video image buffer for the media data
    CVImageBufferRef imageBuffer = CMSampleBufferGetImageBuffer(sampleBuffer);
    // Lock the base address of the pixel buffer
    CVPixelBufferLockBaseAddress(imageBuffer, 0);

    // Get the number of bytes per row for the pixel buffer
    void *baseAddress = CVPixelBufferGetBaseAddress(imageBuffer);

    // Get the number of bytes per row for the pixel buffer
    size_t bytesPerRow = CVPixelBufferGetBytesPerRow(imageBuffer);
    // Get the pixel buffer width and height
    size_t width = CVPixelBufferGetWidth(imageBuffer);
    size_t height = CVPixelBufferGetHeight(imageBuffer);

    // Create a device-dependent RGB color space
    CGColorSpaceRef colorSpace = CGColorSpaceCreateDeviceRGB();

    // Create a bitmap graphics context with the sample buffer data
    CGContextRef context = CGBitmapContextCreate(baseAddress, width, height, 8,
                                                 bytesPerRow, colorSpace, kCGBitmapByteOrder32Little | kCGImageAlphaPremultipliedFirst);
    // Create a Quartz image from the pixel data in the bitmap graphics context
    CGImageRef quartzImage = CGBitmapContextCreateImage(context);
    // Unlock the pixel buffer
    CVPixelBufferUnlockBaseAddress(imageBuffer,0);

    // Free up the context and color space
    CGContextRelease(context);
    CGColorSpaceRelease(colorSpace);

    // Create an image object from the Quartz image
    UIImage *image = [UIImage imageWithCGImage:quartzImage];

    // Release the Quartz image
    CGImageRelease(quartzImage);

    return (image);
}

Thank you!

Answers


I'm not aware of any accessible built-in way to convert a biplanar Y / CbCr image to RGB in iOS. However you should be able to perform the conversion yourself in software, e.g.

uint8_t clamp(int16_t input)
{
    // clamp negative numbers to 0; assumes signed shifts
    // (a valid assumption on iOS)
    input &= ~(num >> 16);

    // clamp numbers greater than 255 to 255; the accumulation
    // of the mask looks odd but is an attempt to avoid
    // pipeline stalls
    uint8_t saturationMask = num >> 8;
    saturationMask |= saturationMask << 4;
    saturationMask |= saturationMask << 2;
    saturationMask |= saturationMask << 1;
    num |= saturationMask;

    return num&0xff;
}

...

CVPixelBufferLockBaseAddress(imageBuffer, 0);

size_t width = CVPixelBufferGetWidth(imageBuffer);
size_t height = CVPixelBufferGetHeight(imageBuffer);

uint8_t *baseAddress = CVPixelBufferGetBaseAddress(imageBuffer);
CVPlanarPixelBufferInfo_YCbCrBiPlanar *bufferInfo = (CVPlanarPixelBufferInfo_YCbCrBiPlanar *)baseAddress;

NSUInteger yOffset = EndianU32_BtoN(bufferInfo->componentInfoY.offset);
NSUInteger yPitch = EndianU32_BtoN(bufferInfo->componentInfoY.rowBytes);

NSUInteger cbCrOffset = EndianU32_BtoN(bufferInfo->componentInfoCbCr.offset);
NSUInteger cbCrPitch = EndianU32_BtoN(bufferInfo->componentInfoCbCr.rowBytes);

uint8_t *rgbBuffer = malloc(width * height * 3);
uint8_t *yBuffer = baseAddress + yOffset;
uint8_t *cbCrBuffer = baseAddress + cbCrOffset;

for(int y = 0; y < height; y++)
{
    uint8_t *rgbBufferLine = &rgbBuffer[y * width * 3];
    uint8_t *yBufferLine = &yBuffer[y * yPitch];
    uint8_t *cbCrBufferLine = &cbCrBuffer[(y >> 1) * cbCrPitch];

    for(int x = 0; x < width; x++)
    {
        // from ITU-R BT.601, rounded to integers
        uint8_t y = yBufferLine[x] - 16;
        uint8_t cb = cbCrBufferLine[x & ~1] - 128;
        uint8_t cr = cbCrBufferLine[x | 1] - 128;

        uint8_t *rgbOutput = &rgbBufferLine[x*3];

        rgbOutput[0] = clamp(((298 * y + 409 * cr - 223) >> 8) - 223);
        rgbOutput[1] = clamp(((298 * y - 100 * cb - 208 * cr + 136) >> 8) + 136);
        rgbOutput[2] = clamp(((298 * y + 516 * cb - 277) >> 8) - 277);
    }

}

Just written directly into this box and untested, I think I've got the cb/cr extraction correct. You'd then use CGBitmapContextCreate with rgbBuffer to create a CGImage and hence a UIImage.


Most implementations I found (including the previous answer here) won't work if you change videoOrientation in the AVCaptureConnection (for some reason I don't fully understand, the CVPlanarPixelBufferInfo_YCbCrBiPlanar struct will be empty in that case), so I wrote one that does (most of the code was based on this answer). My implementation also adds an empty alpha channel to the RGB buffer and creates the CGBitmapContext using the kCGImageAlphaNoneSkipLast flag (there's no alpha data, but iOS seems to require 4 bytes per pixel). Here it is:

#define clamp(a) (a>255?255:(a<0?0:a))

- (UIImage *)imageFromSampleBuffer:(CMSampleBufferRef)sampleBuffer {
    CVImageBufferRef imageBuffer = CMSampleBufferGetImageBuffer(sampleBuffer);
    CVPixelBufferLockBaseAddress(imageBuffer,0);

    size_t width = CVPixelBufferGetWidth(imageBuffer);
    size_t height = CVPixelBufferGetHeight(imageBuffer);
    uint8_t *yBuffer = CVPixelBufferGetBaseAddressOfPlane(imageBuffer, 0);
    size_t yPitch = CVPixelBufferGetBytesPerRowOfPlane(imageBuffer, 0);
    uint8_t *cbCrBuffer = CVPixelBufferGetBaseAddressOfPlane(imageBuffer, 1);
    size_t cbCrPitch = CVPixelBufferGetBytesPerRowOfPlane(imageBuffer, 1);

    int bytesPerPixel = 4;
    uint8_t *rgbBuffer = malloc(width * height * bytesPerPixel);

    for(int y = 0; y < height; y++) {
        uint8_t *rgbBufferLine = &rgbBuffer[y * width * bytesPerPixel];
        uint8_t *yBufferLine = &yBuffer[y * yPitch];
        uint8_t *cbCrBufferLine = &cbCrBuffer[(y >> 1) * cbCrPitch];

        for(int x = 0; x < width; x++) {
            int16_t y = yBufferLine[x];
            int16_t cb = cbCrBufferLine[x & ~1] - 128;
            int16_t cr = cbCrBufferLine[x | 1] - 128;

            uint8_t *rgbOutput = &rgbBufferLine[x*bytesPerPixel];

            int16_t r = (int16_t)roundf( y + cr *  1.4 );
            int16_t g = (int16_t)roundf( y + cb * -0.343 + cr * -0.711 );
            int16_t b = (int16_t)roundf( y + cb *  1.765);

            rgbOutput[0] = 0xff;
            rgbOutput[1] = clamp(b);
            rgbOutput[2] = clamp(g);
            rgbOutput[3] = clamp(r);
        }
    }

    CGColorSpaceRef colorSpace = CGColorSpaceCreateDeviceRGB();
    CGContextRef context = CGBitmapContextCreate(rgbBuffer, width, height, 8, width * bytesPerPixel, colorSpace, kCGBitmapByteOrder32Little | kCGImageAlphaNoneSkipLast);
    CGImageRef quartzImage = CGBitmapContextCreateImage(context);
    UIImage *image = [UIImage imageWithCGImage:quartzImage];

    CGContextRelease(context);
    CGColorSpaceRelease(colorSpace);
    CGImageRelease(quartzImage);
    free(rgbBuffer);

    CVPixelBufferUnlockBaseAddress(imageBuffer, 0);

    return image;
}

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