How to decode base64 url in python?

For Facebook fbml Apps Facebook is sending in a signed_request parameter explained here:

http://developers.facebook.com/docs/authentication/canvas

They have given the php version of decoding this signed request:

http://pastie.org/1054154

How to do the same in python?

I tried base64 module but I am getting Incorrect padding error:

>>> base64.urlsafe_b64decode("eyJhbGdvcml0aG0iOiJITUFDLVNIQTI1NiIsImV4cGlyZXMiOjEyNzk3NDYwMDAsIm9hdXRoX3Rva2VuIjoiMjk1NjY2Njk1MDY0fDIuRXpwem5IRVhZWkJVZmhGQ2l4ZzYzUV9fLjM2MDAuMTI3OTc0NjAwMC0xMDAwMDA0ODMyNzI5MjN8LXJ6U1pnRVBJTktaYnJnX1VNUUNhRzlNdEY4LiIsInVzZXJfaWQiOiIxMDAwMDA0ODMyNzI5MjMifQ")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/lib/python2.6/base64.py", line 112, in urlsafe_b64decode
    return b64decode(s, '-_')
  File "/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.6/lib/python2.6/base64.py", line 76, in b64decode
    raise TypeError(msg)
TypeError: Incorrect padding

Answers


Apparently you missed the last two characters when copying the original base64-encoded string. Suffix the input string with two is-equal (=) signs and it will be decoded correctly.


I have shared a code snippet for parsing signed_request parameter in a python based facebook canvas application at http://sunilarora.org/parsing-signedrequest-parameter-in-python-bas:

import base64
import hashlib
import hmac
import simplejson as json

def base64_url_decode(inp):
    padding_factor = (4 - len(inp) % 4) % 4
    inp += "="*padding_factor 
    return base64.b64decode(unicode(inp).translate(dict(zip(map(ord, u'-_'), u'+/'))))

def parse_signed_request(signed_request, secret):

    l = signed_request.split('.', 2)
    encoded_sig = l[0]
    payload = l[1]

    sig = base64_url_decode(encoded_sig)
    data = json.loads(base64_url_decode(payload))

    if data.get('algorithm').upper() != 'HMAC-SHA256':
        log.error('Unknown algorithm')
        return None
    else:
        expected_sig = hmac.new(secret, msg=payload, digestmod=hashlib.sha256).digest()

    if sig != expected_sig:
        return None
    else:
        log.debug('valid signed request received..')
return data

try

s = 'iEPX-SQWIR3p67lj_0zigSWTKHg'
base64.urlsafe_b64decode(s + '=' * (4 - len(s) % 4))

as it is written here


Alternative to @dae.eklen's solution, you can append === to it:

s = 'iEPX-SQWIR3p67lj_0zigSWTKHg'
base64.urlsafe_b64decode(s + '===')

This works because Python only complains about missing padding, but not extra padding.


import base64
import simplejson as json

def parse_signed_request( signed_request ):
    encoded_sig, payload = signed_request.split('.',2)
    data = json.loads(base64.b64decode( payload.replace('-_', '+/') ))
    return data

Surprising, but currently accepted answer is not exactly correct. Like some other answers stated, it's something called base64url encoding, and it's a part of RFC7515.

Basically, they replaced '+' and '/' chars by '-' and '_' respectively; and additionally removed any trailing '=' chars, because you can always tell how many chars you're missing, just by looking at the encoded string length.

Here's illustrative example from RFC7515 in C#:

 static string base64urlencode(byte [] arg)
 {
   string s = Convert.ToBase64String(arg); // Regular base64 encoder
   s = s.Split('=')[0]; // Remove any trailing '='s
   s = s.Replace('+', '-'); // 62nd char of encoding
   s = s.Replace('/', '_'); // 63rd char of encoding
   return s;
 }

 static byte [] base64urldecode(string arg)
 {
   string s = arg;
   s = s.Replace('-', '+'); // 62nd char of encoding
   s = s.Replace('_', '/'); // 63rd char of encoding
   switch (s.Length % 4) // Pad with trailing '='s
   {
     case 0: break; // No pad chars in this case
     case 2: s += "=="; break; // Two pad chars
     case 3: s += "="; break; // One pad char
     default: throw new System.Exception(
       "Illegal base64url string!");
   }
   return Convert.FromBase64String(s); // Standard base64 decoder
 }

This is the right solution. In python there is base64.b64encode but that only base64 encodes and its is different from base64 url encoding. Here is the right set to of steps to convert form base64encoded to base64urlencoded string: 1. From the resultant string, replace "/" with "_" and "+" with "-" 2. Strip the trailing "==".

Et voila! That will make it a valid string for base64 url decoding. Btw, that link in @dae.eklen 's answer above is broken now.


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