Binarization in Natural Language Processing

Binarization is the act of transforming colorful features of of an entity into vectors of numbers, most often binary vectors, to make good examples for classifier algorithms.

If we where to binarize the sentence "The cat ate the dog", we could start by assigning every word an ID (for example cat-1, ate-2, the-3, dog-4) and then simply replace the word by it's ID giving the vector <3,1,2,3,4>.

Given these IDs we could also create a binary vector by giving each word four possible slots, and setting the slot corresponding to a specific word with to one, giving the vector <0,0,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,1>. The latter method is, as far as I know, is commonly referred to as the bag-of-words-method.

Now for my question, what is the best binarization method when it comes to describe features for natural language processing in general, and transition-based dependency parsing (with Nivres algorithm) in particular?

In this context, we do not want to encode the whole sentence, but rather the current state of the parse, for example the top word on the stack en the first word in the input queue. Since order is highly relevant, this rules out the bag-of-words-method.

With best, I am referring to the method that makes the data the most intelligible for the classifier, without using up unnecessary memory. For example I don't want a word bigram to use 400 million features for 20000 unique words, if only 2% the bigrams actually exist.

Since the answer is also depending on the particular classifier, I am mostly interested in maximum entropy models (liblinear), support vector machines (libsvm) and perceptrons, but answers that apply to other models are also welcome.

Answers


This is actually a really complex question. The first decision you have to make is whether to lemmatize your input tokens (your words). If you do this, you dramatically decrease your type count, and your syntax parsing gets a lot less complicated. However, it takes a lot of work to lemmatize a token. Now, in a computer language, this task gets greatly reduced, as most languages separate keywords or variable names with a well defined set of symbols, like whitespace or a period or whatnot.

The second crucial decision is what you're going to do with the data post-facto. The "bag-of-words" method, in the binary form you've presented, ignores word order, which is completely fine if you're doing summarization of a text or maybe a Google-style search where you don't care where the words appear, as long as they appear. If, on the other hand, you're building something like a compiler or parser, order is very much important. You can use the token-vector approach (as in your second paragraph), or you can extend the bag-of-words approach such that each non-zero entry in the bag-of-words vector contains the linear index position of the token in the phrase.

Finally, if you're going to be building parse trees, there are obvious reasons why you'd want to go with the token-vector approach, as it's a big hassle to maintain sub-phrase ids for every word in the bag-of-words vector, but very easy to make "sub-vectors" in a token-vector. In fact, Eric Brill used a token-id sequence for his part-of-speech tagger, which is really neat.

Do you mind if I ask what specific task you're working on?


Binarization is the act of transforming colorful features of an entity into vectors of numbers, most often binary vectors, to make good examples for classifier algorithms.

I have mostly come across numeric features that take values between 0 and 1 (not binary as you describe), representing the relevance of the particular feature in the vector (between 0% and 100%, where 1 represents 100%). A common example for this are tf-idf vectors: in the vector representing a document (or sentence), you have a value for each term in the entire vocabulary that indicates the relevance of that term for the represented document.

As Mike already said in his reply, this is a complex problem in a wide field. In addition to his pointers, you might find it useful to look into some information retrieval techniques like the vector space model, vector space classification and latent semantic indexing as starting points. Also, the field of word sense disambiguation deals a lot with feature representation issues in NLP.


[Not a direct answer] It all depends on what you are try to parse and then process, but for general short human phrase processing (e.g. IVT) another method is to use neural networks to learn the patterns. This can be very acurate for smallish vocubularies


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