# Column major order

If I have a two dimensional array and don't know the size. How can I process it in column major order without throwing an exception? My printColRow function below fails because of the index being out of bounds.

private void printRowCol(int[][] a) { for(int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) { double sum = 0.0; for(int j = 0; j < a[i].length; j++) sum += a[i][j]; System.out.println(sum + " "); } } private void printColRow(int[][] a){ for(int i = 0; i < a[i].length; i++) { double sum = 0.0; for(int j = 0; j < a.length; j++) sum += a[j][i]; System.out.println(sum + " "); } }

## Answers

**If** the array has at least one row (a.length != 0) **and** all the rows have the same length, then you can do it like this:

private void printColRow(int[][] a){ for(int i = 0; i < a[0].length; i++) { double sum = 0.0; for(int j = 0; j < a.length; j++) sum += a[j][i]; System.out.println(sum + " "); } }

If the rows can have different lengths (e.g. something like {{1, 2, 3}, {4}, {5, 6}}), then something more complex would be required.

In opposite to row major order, where you handle all values of a row before switching to the next row, at column major order all values of a column are handled before switching to the next column . See Row-major_order for a full explanation. If you have:

final int[][] array = { {11, 12, 13}, {21, 22, 23}}; final int n_row = array.length; final int n_col = array[0].length;

then this prints:

for (int i_col = 0; i_col < n_col; i_col++) { System.out.printf("col[%d]:", i_col); for (int i_row = 0; i_row < n_row; i_row++) { System.out.printf(" %d", array[i_row][i_col]); } System.out.println(); }

the values in column major order. There are three columns with two values each:

col[0]:11 21 col[1]:12 22 col[2]:13 23

This works only for a rectangular array. That is, every row contains the same count of values. In opposite this prints:

for (int i_row = 0; i_row < n_row; i_row++) { System.out.printf("row[%d]:", i_row); for (int i_col = 0; i_col < n_col; i_col++) { System.out.printf(" %d", array[i_row][i_col]); } System.out.println(); }

the values in the for java usual row major order:

row[0]: 11 12 13 row[1]: 21 22 23

Two rows with three values each. Due to the fact that a two dimensional array is a one dimensional array (of rows) which contains each one dimensional array as a value (a column) you can do that shorter:

for (final int[] row: array) { System.out.print("row:"); for (final int val: row) { System.out.printf(" %d", val); } System.out.println(); }

The outer loop iterates over a int[][], where each row contains a int[] as value. In inner loop iterates then over the value int[] array.

The Java 8 way is not so elegant due that the array is an array of primitives int[]:

Arrays.asList(array).forEach(row -> { for (final int val: row) System.out.println(val); });