DeepLearning4J - ParagraphVectors: Why is similarity negative?

I'm using the ParagraphVector tool in DeepLearning4j framework. What I'm doing is training a model on a set of text documents and then calculating the similarity between those documents.

Now, as the reference page ( says, the metric used by the tool to calculate similarity is cosine similarity, which should be included between 0 and 1. However, for some pair of documents, I get negative scores.

Can anybody tell why is that?

Thank you in advance.


By definition cosine similarity can be within [-1, 1].

So technically it's still possible to get negative values for w2v/d2v.

However, usually you won't see -1 or even something close to that.

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