Retrofit - Multipart request: Required MultipartFile parameter 'file' is not present

I'm trying to send file on server using Retrofit2. I do everything according documentation, but always get 400 server error.

I'm tried to do like this:

RequestBody body =
                RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("image/png"), photo);

    addPhoto(@Part("file") RequestBody file);

...and like this:

MultipartBody.Part part = MultipartBody.Part.createFormData("file", "file", body);

    addPhoto(@Part("file") MultipartBody.Part files);

does't matter. Result is always the same "Multipart request: Required MultipartFile parameter 'file' is not present" - server response.

I would think that Spring on the server works not good but I do the equivalent code on Swift (iOS) and it works! Here Server sees this 'file' part.

Alamofire.upload(method, endpoint, headers: headers,
            multipartFormData: { multipartFormData in
                multipartFormData.appendBodyPart(fileURL: self.filePath!, name: "file")

Now I want it works on Android with Retrofit. But I even look in logs of Retrofit requests and indeed I don't see any 'file' text in the logs.

What's wrong with that?


You can try the following sample code. In this demo app, we will upload a photo after selecting from the Gallery. Hope it helps!

build.gradle file:

dependencies {
    compile 'com.squareup.retrofit2:retrofit:2.0.1'
    compile 'com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-gson:2.0.1'
} file:

public interface WebAPIService {

    Call<ResponseBody> postFile(@Part MultipartBody.Part file, @Part("description") RequestBody description);
} file:

import okhttp3.MediaType;
import okhttp3.MultipartBody;
import okhttp3.RequestBody;
import okhttp3.ResponseBody;
import retrofit2.Call;
import retrofit2.Callback;
import retrofit2.Response;
import retrofit2.Retrofit;

public class FileActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private final Context mContext = this;
    private final String API_URL_BASE = "http://serverip:port";
    private final String LOG_TAG = "BNK";

    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        selectImage(); // selects a photo from Gallery

    protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
        super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);
        if (resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK && requestCode == 100) {
            Uri fileUri = data.getData();
            if (fileUri != null) {
                uploadFile(fileUri); // uploads the file to the web service

    private void uploadFile(Uri fileUri) {

        String filePath = getRealPathFromUri(fileUri);
        if (filePath != null && !filePath.isEmpty()) {
            File file = new File(filePath);
            if (file.exists()) {
                Retrofit retrofit = new Retrofit.Builder()

                WebAPIService service = retrofit.create(WebAPIService.class);

                // creates RequestBody instance from file
                RequestBody requestFile = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("multipart/form-data"), file);
                // MultipartBody.Part is used to send also the actual filename
                MultipartBody.Part body = MultipartBody.Part.createFormData("file", file.getName(), requestFile);
                // adds another part within the multipart request
                String descriptionString = "Sample description";
                RequestBody description = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("multipart/form-data"), descriptionString);
                // executes the request
                Call<ResponseBody> call = service.postFile(body, description);                
                call.enqueue(new Callback<ResponseBody>() {
                    public void onResponse(Call<ResponseBody> call,
                                           Response<ResponseBody> response) {
                        Log.i(LOG_TAG, "success");

                    public void onFailure(Call<ResponseBody> call, Throwable t) {
                        Log.e(LOG_TAG, t.getMessage());

    private void selectImage() {
        Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_GET_CONTENT);
        startActivityForResult(intent, 100);

    public String getRealPathFromUri(final Uri uri) {
        // DocumentProvider
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.KITKAT && DocumentsContract.isDocumentUri(mContext, uri)) {
            // ExternalStorageProvider
            if (isExternalStorageDocument(uri)) {
                final String docId = DocumentsContract.getDocumentId(uri);
                final String[] split = docId.split(":");
                final String type = split[0];

                if ("primary".equalsIgnoreCase(type)) {
                    return Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory() + "/" + split[1];
            // DownloadsProvider
            else if (isDownloadsDocument(uri)) {

                final String id = DocumentsContract.getDocumentId(uri);
                final Uri contentUri = ContentUris.withAppendedId(
                        Uri.parse("content://downloads/public_downloads"), Long.valueOf(id));

                return getDataColumn(mContext, contentUri, null, null);
            // MediaProvider
            else if (isMediaDocument(uri)) {
                final String docId = DocumentsContract.getDocumentId(uri);
                final String[] split = docId.split(":");
                final String type = split[0];

                Uri contentUri = null;
                if ("image".equals(type)) {
                    contentUri = MediaStore.Images.Media.EXTERNAL_CONTENT_URI;
                } else if ("video".equals(type)) {
                    contentUri = MediaStore.Video.Media.EXTERNAL_CONTENT_URI;
                } else if ("audio".equals(type)) {
                    contentUri = MediaStore.Audio.Media.EXTERNAL_CONTENT_URI;

                final String selection = "_id=?";
                final String[] selectionArgs = new String[]{

                return getDataColumn(mContext, contentUri, selection, selectionArgs);
        // MediaStore (and general)
        else if ("content".equalsIgnoreCase(uri.getScheme())) {

            // Return the remote address
            if (isGooglePhotosUri(uri))
                return uri.getLastPathSegment();

            return getDataColumn(mContext, uri, null, null);
        // File
        else if ("file".equalsIgnoreCase(uri.getScheme())) {
            return uri.getPath();

        return null;

    private String getDataColumn(Context context, Uri uri, String selection,
                                        String[] selectionArgs) {

        Cursor cursor = null;
        final String column = "_data";
        final String[] projection = {

        try {
            cursor = context.getContentResolver().query(uri, projection, selection, selectionArgs,
            if (cursor != null && cursor.moveToFirst()) {
                final int index = cursor.getColumnIndexOrThrow(column);
                return cursor.getString(index);
        } finally {
            if (cursor != null)
        return null;

    private boolean isExternalStorageDocument(Uri uri) {
        return "".equals(uri.getAuthority());

    private boolean isDownloadsDocument(Uri uri) {
        return "".equals(uri.getAuthority());

    private boolean isMediaDocument(Uri uri) {
        return "".equals(uri.getAuthority());

    private boolean isGooglePhotosUri(Uri uri) {
        return "".equals(uri.getAuthority());

In my case server was not handling some headers which retrofit is sending. That's why I had to remove useless header from retrofit requests. I've created interface function like this:

Call<FileUploadResponse> uploadPhoto(@Header("Content-Type") String contentType,
                                          @Header("Authorization") String auth,
                                          @Part MultipartBody body);

And call it like:

ApiClient.ApiInterface client = ApiClient.getClient();
File file = new File(getPathFromUri(fileUri));
RequestBody fileBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse(getContentResolver().getType(fileUri)), file);
MultipartBody body = new MultipartBody.Builder().addFormDataPart("file-type", "profile")
                .addFormDataPart("photo", "image.png", fileBody)
client.uploadPhoto("multipart/form-data; boundary=" + body.boundary(),
                    PrefManager.getInstance().getToken(), body);

see details here: Upload picture to server using retrofit 2

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