PHP - Preventing collision in Cron - File lock safe?

I'm trying to find a safe way to prevent a cron job collision (ie. prevent it from running if another instance is already running).

Some options I've found recommend using a lock on a file.

Is that really a safe option? What would happen if the script dies for example? Will the lock remain?

Are there other ways of doing this?

Answers


This sample was taken at http://php.net/flock and changed a little and this is a correct way to do what you want:

$fp = fopen(sys_get_temp_dir().DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR."lock.txt", "w+");

if (flock($fp, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) { // do an exclusive lock
    // do the work

    flock($fp, LOCK_UN); // release the lock
} else {
    echo "Couldn't get the lock!";
}

fclose($fp);

Credits:


In Symfony Framework you could use the lock component symfony/lock

https://symfony.com/doc/current/console/lockable_trait.html


I've extended the concept from zerkms to create a function that can be called from the start of a cron.

Using the Cronlocker you specify a lock name, then the name of a callback function to be called if the cron is OFF. Optionally you may give an array of parameters to pass to the callback function. There's also an optional callback function if you need to do something different if the lock is ON.

In some cases I got a few exceptions and wanted to be able to trap them, and I added a function for handling fatal exceptions, which should be added. I wanted to be able to hit the file from a browser and bypass the cronlock, so that's built in.

I found as I used this a lot there were cases where I wanted to block other crons from running while this cron is running, so I added an optional array of lockblocks, which are other lock names to block.

Then there were cases where I wanted this cron to run after other crons had finished, so there's an optional array of lockwaits, which are other lock names to wait until none of which are running.

simple example:

Cronlocker::CronLock('cron1', 'RunThis');
function RunThis() {
    echo('I ran!');
}

callback parameters and failure functions:

Cronlocker::CronLock('cron2', 'RunThat', ['ran'], 'ImLocked');
function RunThat($x) {
    echo('I also ran! ' . $x);
}
function ImLocked($x) {
    echo('I am locked :-( ' . $x);
}

blocking and waiting:

Cronlocker::CronLock('cron3', 'RunAgain', null, null, ['cron1'], ['cron2']);
function RunAgain() {
    echo('I ran.<br />');
    echo('I block cron1 while I am running.<br />')
    echo('I wait for cron2 to finish if it is running.');
}

class:

class Cronlocker {

    private static $LockFile = null;
    private static $LockFileBlocks = [];
    private static $LockFileWait = null;

    private static function GetLockfileName($lockname) {
        return "/tmp/lock-" . $lockname . ".txt";
    }

    /**
     * Locks a PHP script from being executed more than once at a time
     * @param string $lockname          Use a unique lock name for each lock that needs to be applied.
     * @param string $callback          The name of the function to call if the lock is OFF
     * @param array $callbackParams Optional array of parameters to apply to the callback function when called
     * @param string $callbackFail      Optional name of the function to call if the lock is ON
     * @param string[] $lockblocks      Optional array of locknames for other crons to also block while this cron is running
     * @param string[] $lockwaits       Optional array of locknames for other crons to wait until they finish running before this cron will run
     * @see http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5428631/php-preventing-collision-in-cron-file-lock-safe
     */
    public static function CronLock($lockname, $callback, $callbackParams = null, $callbackFail = null, $lockblocks = [], $lockwaits = []) {

        // check all the crons we are waiting for to finish running
        if (!empty($lockwaits)) {
            $waitingOnCron = true;
            while ($waitingOnCron) {
                $waitingOnCron = false;
                foreach ($lockwaits as $lockwait) {
                    self::$LockFileWait = null;
                    $tempfile = self::GetLockfileName($lockwait);
                    try {
                        self::$LockFileWait = fopen($tempfile, "w+");
                    } catch (Exception $e) {
                        //ignore error
                    }
                    if (flock(self::$LockFileWait, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) { // do an exclusive lock
                        // cron we're waiting on isn't running
                        flock(self::$LockFileWait, LOCK_UN); // release the lock
                    } else {
                        // we're wating on a cron
                        $waitingOnCron = true;
                    }
                    if (is_resource(self::$LockFileWait))
                        fclose(self::$LockFileWait);
                    if ($waitingOnCron) break;      // no need to check any more
                }
                if ($waitingOnCron) sleep(15);      // wait a few seconds
            }
        }

        // block any additional crons from starting
        if (!empty($lockblocks)) {
            self::$LockFileBlocks = [];
            foreach ($lockblocks as $lockblock) {
                $tempfile = self::GetLockfileName($lockblock);
                try {
                    $block = fopen($tempfile, "w+");
                } catch (Exception $e) {
                    //ignore error
                }
                if (flock($block, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) { // do an exclusive lock
                    // lock made
                    self::$LockFileBlocks[] = $block;
                } else {
                    // couldn't lock it, we ignore and move on
                }
            }
        }

        // set the cronlock
        self::$LockFile = null;
        $tempfile = self::GetLockfileName($lockname);
        $return = null;
        try {
            if (file_exists($tempfile) && !is_writable($tempfile)) {
                //assume we're hitting this from a browser and execute it regardless of the cronlock
                if (empty($callbackParams))
                    $return = $callback();
                else
                    $return = call_user_func_array($callback, $callbackParams);
            } else {
                self::$LockFile = fopen($tempfile, "w+");
            }
        } catch (Exception $e) {
            //ignore error
        }
        if (!empty(self::$LockFile)) {
            if (flock(self::$LockFile, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) { // do an exclusive lock
                // do the work
                if (empty($callbackParams))
                    $return = $callback();
                else
                    $return = call_user_func_array($callback, $callbackParams);
                flock(self::$LockFile, LOCK_UN); // release the lock
            } else {
                // call the failed function
                if (!empty($callbackFail)) {
                    if (empty($callbackParams))
                        $return = $callbackFail();
                    else
                        $return = call_user_func_array($callbackFail, $callbackParams);
                }
            }
            if (is_resource(self::$LockFile))
                fclose(self::$LockFile);
        }

        // remove any lockblocks
        if (!empty($lockblocks)) {
            foreach (self::$LockFileBlocks as $LockFileBlock) {
                flock($LockFileBlock, LOCK_UN); // release the lock
                if (is_resource($LockFileBlock))
                    fclose($LockFileBlock);
            }
        }

        return $return;
    }

    /**
     * Releases the Cron Lock locking file, useful to specify on fatal errors
     */
    public static function ReleaseCronLock() {
        // release the cronlock
        if (!empty(self::$LockFile) && is_resource(self::$LockFile)) {
            var_dump('Cronlock released after error encountered: ' . self::$LockFile);
            flock(self::$LockFile, LOCK_UN);
            fclose(self::$LockFile);
        }
        // release any lockblocks too
        foreach (self::$LockFileBlocks as $LockFileBlock) {
            if (!empty($LockFileBlock) && is_resource($LockFileBlock)) {
                flock($LockFileBlock, LOCK_UN);
                fclose($LockFileBlock);
            }
        }
    }
}

Should also be implemented on a common page, or built into your existing fatal error handler:

function fatal_handler() {
    // For cleaning up crons that fail
    Cronlocker::ReleaseCronLock();
}
register_shutdown_function("fatal_handler");

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